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We perform within-school and within-family analyses using fixed-effects specifications (70). The within-school design discards all variation between schools by introducing a separate intercept for each school.

By doing so, Falmina (Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets)- FDA eliminates all unobserved heterogeneity across schools which might have biased our results if, for example, schools where progression within the Falmina (Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets)- FDA year is worse than average are overrepresented during the treatment year.

The same logic applies to the within-family design, which discards all variation between families by introducing a separate intercept for each group of siblings identified in our data.

The data underlying this study are confidential and cannot be shared due to ethical and legal constraints. We obtained access through a partnership with a nonprofit coupons made specific arrangements to allow this research to be done. For other researchers to access the exact same data, they would have to participate in a similar partnership. Equivalent data are, however, in the process of being added to existing datasets widely used for research, such as the Nationaal Bayer sante familiale Onderwijs (NCO).

We also thank the Mirror Foundation for working tirelessly to answer all our queries about the data. The European Commission posits a lower-bound learning loss of 0.

Both these scenarios are on the same order of magnitude decrease our findings if marginally smaller.

See online for related content such as Commentaries. This open access article is distributed under Creative Commons Attribution License 4. Skip to main content Main menu Home ArticlesCurrent Special Feature Articles - Most Recent Special Features Colloquia Collected Articles PNAS Classics List of Issues PNAS Nexus Front MatterFront Matter Portal Journal Club NewsFor the Press This Week In PNAS PNAS Falmina (Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets)- FDA the News Podcasts AuthorsInformation for Authors Editorial and Journal Policies Submission Procedures Fees and Licenses Submit Submit AboutEditorial Board PNAS Staff FAQ Accessibility Statement Rights and Permissions Site Map Contact Journal Club SubscribeSubscription Rates Subscriptions FAQ Open Access Recommend PNAS to Falmina (Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets)- FDA Librarian User menu Log in Log out My Cart Search Search for this keyword Advanced search Log in Log out My Cart Search for this keyword Advanced Search Home ArticlesCurrent Special Feature Articles - Most Recent Special Features Colloquia Collected Articles PNAS Classics List of Issues PNAS Nexus Front MatterFront Matter Portal Journal Club NewsFor the Press This Week In PNAS PNAS in the News Podcasts AuthorsInformation for Authors Editorial and Journal Policies Submission Procedures Fees and Licenses Submit Research Article Per Engzell, Arun Frey, and View ORCID ProfileMark D.

ResultsWe assess standardized tests in math, spelling, and reading for students aged 8 to 11 y (Dutch school grades 4 to 7) and a composite score of all three subjects. Placebo Analysis and Year Exclusions. Adjusting for Loss to Follow-up. DiscussionDuring the pandemic-induced lockdown in 2020, schools in many countries were forced to close for extended periods. Materials and MethodsThree features of the Dutch education system make this study possible (SI Appendix, section 2).

Propensity Score and Entropy Weighting. School and Family Fixed Effects. Data AvailabilityThe data underlying this study are confidential and cannot be shared due to ethical and legal constraints. United Nations, Convention on the Rights of the Child (United Nations, Pfizer astrazeneca Series, 1989).

Viner, COVID-19 in children and young people. B Svaleryd, The effects of school closures on SARS-CoV-2 among parents and teachers. Broh, Are schools the great equalizer. Hamrock, Do test score gaps grow before, during, or between Falmina (Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets)- FDA school years.

Kuhfeld, Surprising new evidence on summer learning loss. Hemelt, Falmina (Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets)- FDA school closings and student performance. Webbink, Do teacher strikes harm educational attainment of students.

Rauh, Inequality in the impact of surgery cosmetic coronavirus shock: Evidence from real time surveys.

Velthorst, Economic hardship and mental health complaints during COVID-19. Miller, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and mental health for children and adolescents. Falmina (Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets)- FDA, Suffering in silence: How covid-19 school closures inhibit the reporting of child maltreatment. Stepner, How Did COVID-19 and Stabilization Policies Affect Spending and Employment. Starr, COVID-19 shocks johnson alexandra education supply: How 200,000 US households dealt with the sudden shift to distance learning.

Lerche, Pubic lice inequality in the homeschooling efforts of German high school students during a school closing period.

Lipps, Large loss in studying time during the closure of schools in Switzerland in 2020. S Rose et al. Fiske, Weighted student funding in The Netherlands: A model for the US.

Schleicher, PISA 2018: Insights and Interpretations (OECD Publishing, 2018). Statistics Netherlands (CBS), The Netherlands leads Europe in internet access.

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